PB: No, we were always a chain of stores. PB: that travel and go camping. Category 7, invitation, occurred in both the student and professional corpora, usually in the closing stages of a negotiation. Excerpt 6 provides an example from the student corpus: Excerpt 6 IS: It was nice doing business with you. IB: Yes. IS: We will draw up a contract later on but now, are we going to have a drink?
Good idea. As was observed to be the case with a number of initial greeting exchanges Cat- egory 1 , the aspiring negotiators also tended to respond to leave taking routines inadequately. This example was not an isolated case in the student corpus. Ex- cerpt 7 provides an example. Excerpt 7 PB: I would like to thank you for coming and having travelled such a long time. Maybe in a few years time you will have the possibility of erm travelling high speed train?
PS: High speed train? PB: From Amsterdam to Paris will be two hours maybe.
PS: It? Table 2 presents overall frequencies of safe talk in both corpora, and in the three negotiation stages opening, bargaining or closing. The aspiring negotiators initi- ated safe talk in only very few instances. Relative frequencies for each professional speaker are considerably higher. All of the professionals initiated safe talk in their contributions, compared to 8 of the 10 aspiring negotiators. Furthermore, it can be seen in Table 2 that the professionals initiated safe talk in all three stages of their negotiations, while the aspiring negotiators only did so in the opening and closing stages, restricting themselves to very short sequences.
Category 8, non-business. In fact, the safe talk topics initiated in both corpora, and by the professionals in particular, largely constituted business-related content in the sense that they could be seen as further instances of professional talk. In general, then, the negotiators, and the pro- fessionals in particular, did not seem to engage much in talk that was wholly external to the context of their professional role as a constituent negotiator, or that was com- pletely unrelated in content to the main transactional goal of the exchange.
Interculturalness as a safe topic Safe talk sequences about the intercultural context of the negotiation were initi- ated in seven of the nine professional negotiations. PB: Yes. PS: We come with too many in certain parts of France. PB: Oh yes. PS: Yes, but we know that certain parts of France are crowded with tourists. PB: Yes, Ardeche and Bordeaux. Laughs PS: Right.
Excerpt 9 PB: Could you repeat that? Actually this is really strange.
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I am Italian, you are Dutch and we are speaking in English. OK, so you were saying. There were no instances of safe talk on interculturalness in the student corpus. Also, some of the professionals had at one time taken part in courses on intercultural business communication.
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However, it should be noted that the profession- als who had not taken such a course also initiated safe talk about interculturalness. For example, one party may im- ply that their needs are real by providing a series of arguments. Thus, the reasons for feel- ing out procedures appear to be motivated largely by concerns underlying rapport and face management. Thus, such procedures can be regarded as expected, pre-bargaining behaviour, aimed not directly at reaching agreement, but at creating rapport through mutual responsive- ness in the pre-negotiation stages.
In general, the aspiring negotiators spent little time on pre-bargaining talk, usu- ally restricting themselves to greetings, introductions and enquiries after well-being. In contrast, the professionals, following longer safe talk exchanges, invariably also spent time on feeling out procedures. Excerpt 10 is an example from a French— Dutch professional negotiation. It follows an initial safe talk phase. The excerpt be- gins with the Dutch seller who checks whether both participants are agreed on all other aspects of the deal, leaving a potential opening for the French buyer to move on to the main bargaining phase and the negotiation of prices.
The French buyer, however, elects instead to introduce a new topic and the Dutchman reciprocates. Excerpt 10 PS: You have at the moment no further questions about the erm design, the execu- tion of the products, the erm delivery time or whatsoever? PS: Okay. PB: For backpacks especially we wanted some really special types of backpacks. PB: They erm just going and camping so erm this was the most interesting prod- ucts, we found.
I mean in quantities. We talk in quantities. PB: Yes erm yes but you know that all depends on the margin. PB: And of course usually these these kinds of products in the range and the pre- sentation that we picked suits our population I think our targets. PB: of erm of range of margins for us you see.
And the sleeping bags? How does that come out?
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For for among these three items? PB: quite a problem for us. In this excerpt, which is only the beginning of a longer feeling out phase, the nego- tiators implicitly set limits and indicate which of the products would be more lucra- tive or not for them, ahead of the main bargaining phase. Intu- itively, the assumption underlying you-attitude is that it can make written messages more persuasive.
Again, analyses and comparisons were carried out at the corpus and individual negotiator level. The results of these tests, where relevant, are reported below. Frequencies for each pronoun, per negotiator and for the corpora as a whole, are presented in Table 3 aspiring negotiators and Table 4 professionals. The propor- tion of total instances to absolute contribution in number of utterances2 is provided in brackets. Table 4 presents personal pronoun use in the professional corpus. This is very similar to the range found for the aspiring negotiators 0. It really is the best solu- tion for you.
Perhaps framing proposals in this way was a tactical negotiation strategy to make their discourse more persuasive. In contrast, the aspiring negotia- tors rarely did this. It will mean the end for me. The professionals tended to depersonalise such reasoning, providing more neutral arguments relating to the business or economic environment in general e. You know how it is. The result is prices go up. In contrast, the aspiring negotiators main- tained a largely personalised perspective throughout their negotiations. As a result, the latter group came across as emotional and subjective, that is, unprofessional rather than businesslike, in their negotiations.
Overall, the aspiring negotiators engaged in safe talk less frequently than the professionals. Whereas the professionals engaged in safe talk in all three negotiation phases, the aspiring nego- tiators only did so in the opening and closing stages, if at all. With few exceptions, the negotiators, and particularly the professionals, did not engage in talk that was clearly external to the business context of their professional role as a con- stituent negotiator, or clearly unrelated to the transactional goal of the exchange. However, the two scenarios need not be mutually exclusive.
Most of the professional negotiations included sequences about the intercultural context of the negotiation. In some instances, they distanced themselves from their cul- tural identities by jocularly criticising aspects of their respective cultures.
Topic: Sales And Negotiation
I will restrict the discussion to areas that relate to pragmatic and to some extent strategic competence and ability, as the profes- sionals were clearly seen to surpass the aspiring negotiators in this domain see above. Routine communication such as greetings, enquiries after well-being, and leave-taking were mostly dealt with inadequately, in that the aspiring negotiators either reciprocated half-heartedly or worse, failed to do so altogether.
The relative under-use of safe talk in general contributed to the aspiring nego- tiators failing to structure their lingua franca negotiations into clearly separate, but, judging by the structure of the professional negotiations, apparently obligatory phases, with clearly separate functions relational vs. In this area, there would seem to be a particular need to make aspiring negotiators aware that there is more to negotiation discourse than transactional talk.
Aspiring negotiators need to be sensitised to how negotiators make the transition from one phase to the next, and particularly from the pre-bargaining, relationally oriented phase to the central, transactional phase [see Dow for similar recommendations]. Secondly, the aspiring negotiators, in contrast to the professionals, communicated from a highly personalised perspective in their discourse.
This contrast between the two groups was observed particularly in the central bargaining phase. Although the professionals communicated from a personalised perspec- tive at various points during their negotiations and particularly in the opening and closing stages, they nevertheless stayed in professional character throughout. As was suggested earlier, by emphasising their professional commonalities, negotiators can in fact promote a feeling of solidarity between themselves and the other negoti- ator s.
In other words, establishing and reinforcing a professional identity might in fact also be a source of building rapport. According to Aston then, creating and maintaining rapport would seem to be particularly important in situations where a lingua franca is used. Further- more, they appear to be unable to manage appropriately, that is, like professionals, certain aspects of facework in the participation domain of rapport management.
Therefore, it would seem that a consideration of rapport management and how it is manifested in English as a lingua franca in relevant intercultural business commu- nication settings deserve to be important components of business communication teaching in general and of ESP teaching in international business programmes in particular. References Aston, G. Notes on the interlanguage of comity. Blum-Kulka Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Austin, J. How to do things with words?. Brown, R. The pronouns of power and solidarity.
Sebeok Ed. Brown, G. Teaching the spoken language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, P. Campbell, N. Journal of Marketing, 52, 49— Charles, M.
Language and negotiation: A Middle East lexicon | DiploFoundation
Business negotiations: interdependence between discourse and the business relationship. English for Specific Purposes, 15 1 , 19— Dow, E. Nickerson Eds. London: Longman. Edmondson, W. Relations in public. Kelley, H. A classroom study of the dilemmas in interpersonal negotiations. Archibald Ed. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies. Principles of pragmatics. New York: Longman. Li, X.
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Chinese—Dutch business negotiations: insights from discourse. Planken, B. Face and identity management in negotiation. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press. Pruitt, D. Negotiation behavior. New York: Academic Press. Scollon, R.
Intercultural communication 2nd ed. Shelby, A. However, other outcomes remain possible, in particular a further Article 50 extension, given the UK Prime Minister's request of 5 April. The EU are set to decide on this within the European Council on 10 April , most likely on the basis of conditions set for the UK. While a parallel process for establishing a majority for an alternative solution to the negotiated deal is under way in Westminster, its outcome remains uncertain.
Finally, although rejected by the government, the UK still has the option to unilaterally revoke its notification to withdraw from the EU, or to organise another referendum on the issue the latter dependent on an extension. Please see also the parallel Briefing, Brexit: Understanding the withdrawal agreement and political declaration, of March PE And visit the European Parliament homepage on Brexit negotiations.
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